A Simple Explanation

Implantation of small mesh tubes called stents at the blockage site for patients suffering with heart attacks, using angioplasty procedure.

What is Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)?

This occurs when the blood flow to the heart is stopped in turn damaging the heart muscle and is commonly known as Heart Attack. This may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat or cardiac arrest.


Discomfort feeling, like heartburn, moving to the shoulder, arm, back, neck or jaw


Cold sweat

Chest Pain usually in the center or left side.

Shortness of Breath

Feeling faint

Feeling tired

Some people have atypical or unusual symptoms too, which women are more likely to show.


There are many risk factors that cause Acute MI. Most of these factors can be prevented. The main risk factors can be classified below,


Smoking leads as the major cause standing at 36% of the time, Obesity is a close second at 20%. The other causes include Lack of exercise, Job Stress and Chronic stress levels.

The Bad Cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), in blood is a major cause of artery blockages as it sticks to the artery walls and produce plaque, restricting blood flow. According to some studies, Saturated Fats and Transfats are the major contributors to the buildup of plaque.


High Blood Pressure: The normal human Blood Pressure is 120/80 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury). If the BP is higher, it damages the arteries and accelerates plaque buildup.

High Cholesterol Level: The Abnormal levels of Lipoproteins in the body, which include high low-density lipoprotein, low high-density lipoprotein, high triglycerides level.

Diabetes: The high level of blood sugar or glucose can also damage the blood vessels and make way for heart attacks.

Obesity: This is defined either by the BMI or Body mass Index or the waist circumference or waist-hip ratio. This is usually a culmination of one or more of the earlier mentioned diseases.


Some people are unlucky enough to have genes that favor Acute MI, passed on from earlier generations. There are nearly 27 genetic variants that are associated with risk of Acute MI.

How is Acute MI diagnosed?

The diagnosis of Acute MI can be done from the following tests:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the heart’s activity
  • Stress Test to monitor heart’s response to strenuous activities.
  • Angiogram with coronary catheterization to locate blockages.

Primary Stenting

This is one of the treatments done for Acute MI. This is basically implantation of stents, small mesh-tubes at the site of blockage in arteries, allow for smooth blood flow.


This is usually done by a surgical procedure called balloon Angioplasty. The doctor will insert a long, thin tube called catheter through an artery, reaching the blockage. Then a balloon, attached to the end of the catheter, is inflated to reopen the artery, resuming the blood flow. The stent is then inserted at the blockage site to prevent further closing of the artery.

Post Procedure

  • The recovery time of the patient depends on the damage the heart has sustained.
  • Most of the patients can resume their normal routine after the heart attack, but cutting down on any physical intensive activity.
  • The doctor will suggest a specific recovery plan for the patient to regain strength and learn about a healthier lifestyle.

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