Mitral Valve Regurgitation

Human heart has four valves namely mitral valve, aortic valve, pulmonary valve and tricuspid valve. The mitral valve is also known as bicuspid valve or left antriventricular valve. It is seen as a dual flap valve between the left atrium and left ventricle.

The mitral valve has got two flaps of tissues known by the name leaflets. It opens when the blood flows from left atrium to the left ventricle. Each time when the blood flows, the flaps close so as to prevent the blood from flowing backwards.

Mitral valve regurgitation is one of the most commonly seen heart valve disorder. Here you can read the details.

What is Mitral Valve Regurgitation?

In patients with mitral valve regurgitation, the mitral valve does not close tightly. Therefore some quantity of the blood from the left ventricle will flow backward into the left atrium, instead of going into the aorta, with each heartbeat. The leakage will increase the pressure and volume of the blood in the area. The heart will become inefficient in pumping blood resulting in shortness of breath and dizziness. Mitral valve regurgitation is also called mitral insufficiency or mitral incompetence.

There are two types of mitral valve regurgitation. They are:

  • Primary mitral valve regurgitation: Caused by abnormality in the mitral valve
  • Secondary mitral valve regurgitation: Caused by abnormality in the left ventricle of the heart  

What causes mitral valve regurgitation?
Here are the probable reasons of the mitral regurgitation:

  • Congenital heart disease: Some babies are born with heart defects like abnormal heart valves.
  • High Blood Pressure 
  • Endocarditis: Infection in the inner lining of the heart valves
  • Heart attack: It can weaken the muscles in the mitral valve, leading to inefficiency. A sudden and severe mitral regurgitation is also possible with a heart attack.
  • Rheumatic fever: This common type of fever can lead to mitral regurgitation at any stage of life.
  • Cardiomyopathy: The thickening, enlargement, or rigidness of the heart muscles may cause the heart to work harder, stretch the tissues and cause mitral regurgitation
  • Accident: A deep injury or trauma can lead to mitral regurgitation  
  • Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP)

Check the symptoms of mitral regurgitation  

  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Cough
  • Palpitatio
  • Trouble in sleeping due to uneven heartbeat
  • Excessive urination in night 

The symptoms will develop gradually, unless it occurs suddenly. However, the symptoms will suddenly show up if the regurgitation occurs after a heart attack.
Treatment for mitral regurgitation
If it is mild regurgitation, treatment is not necessary. For patients with high BP, medication is suggested to lower it. Doctors may recommend anticoagulation medicine as well. Mitral valve replacement or repair surgery is suggested for patients if it is in later stages.
Mitral valve repair: The cardiac surgeon will repair the valve by reconnecting the valve leaflets or by removing the extra tissues in order to tight closely.
Mitral valve replacement: The cardiac surgeon will replace the mitral valve with mechanical or biological valve.

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