High blood pressure is a most common condition in which the blood is forced against your artery walls high enough that it may cause of hardening of arteries and eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease.

Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of resistance of blood flow in your arteries and the amount of blood pump by your heart. The more your heart pumps blood and the narrower are your arteries, the higher is the blood pressure.


Generally, high blood pressure shows no signs or symptoms, even if readings reach dangerously high levels.

Few people with high blood pressure can have headaches, nosebleeds or shortness of breath but these signs are not specific and usually, do not occur until high blood pressure reaches a life-threatening stage. Symptoms of high blood pressure include:

Headache: this will last for several days.

Vomiting: it’s less common than just nausea.

Nausea: a sensation of discomfort and unease in the stomach which cause an urge to vomit.

Dizziness: unsteadiness, lightheadedness, and vertigo.

Epistaxis: nosebleeds.

Blurred or double vision (diplopia).

Dyspnea: shortness of breath or breathlessness.

Palpitations: disagreeable sensations of irregular or forceful beating of the heart.

Anyone who experiences any of these symptoms should see the doctor immediately.


There are two major types of high blood pressure.

1. Primary (essential) hypertension

For most adults, there is no identifiable cause of having high blood pressure. This type of high blood pressure is known as primary (essential) hypertension, it tends to gradually develop over the time.

2. Secondary hypertension

Sometimes have high blood pressure is caused by an underlying condition. This type of high blood pressure is known as secondary hypertension, it tends to appear suddenly and cause higher blood pressure than primary hypertension. Various medications and conditions can lead to secondary hypertension like:

Obstructive sleep apnea

Adrenal gland tumors

Kidney problems

Thyroid problems

Certain medications, cold remedies, such as birth control pills, over-the-counter pain relievers, decongestants, and some prescription drugs

Certain blood vessels defect you are born with (congenital)

Abuse of alcohol

Illegal drugs, such as amphetamines and cocaine

Risk factors

High blood pressure can cause severe harm to our body and it is caused due to various factor and conditions. Various factors leading to high blood pressure includes:

Age - as you age the risk of high blood pressure increases.

Being overweight or obese

Race - high blood pressure is particularly common among blacks and often developing at an earlier age in them than it does in whites.

Using tobacco

Family history of having high blood pressure

Not being physically active

Too much salt (i.e. sodium) in your diet

Too little potassium, vitamin D or potassium in your diet

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