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CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

Coronary artery diseases happen when the major blood vessels of the body that supply our heart with oxygen, blood, and nutrients from coronary arteries become damaged or diseased. Cholesterol contains deposits of plaque in our arteries and inflammations are usually to blame for coronary artery disease.

Because coronary artery disease often develops over the decades and we might not notice a problem until we have a significant blockage or a heart attack. But there are ways we can use to prevent and treat coronary artery disease. A healthy lifestyle may make a big impact.

Symptom

If our coronary arteries are narrow than they cannot supply enough oxygenic rich blood, to our heart especially when it is beating hard, for example during exercise. The decreased blood flow cannot cause any coronary artery disease symptoms. As plaque continues to build up in our coronary arteries, however, we may develop coronary artery disease signs and symptoms, including:

Chest pain i.e. angina. We may feel pressure or tightness in our chest as if someone were standing on our chest. This pain referred to as angina which usually occurs in the middle or on the left side of the chest. Angina is generally triggered by the physical or emotional stress. The pain usually goes away within the minutes after stopping the stressful activity. In some people especially women, this pain can be fleeting or sharp and felt in the neck, arm or back.

Shortness of breath. If our heart cannot pump enough blood to meet our body's needs, we may develop shortness of breath or extreme fatigue with exertion.

Heart attack. A completely blocked coronary artery can cause a heart attack. The classic sign and symptoms of a heart attack include crushing pressure in our chest and pain in our shoulder or arm, sometimes with shortness of breath and sweating

Cause

Coronary artery disease is said, to begin with, the damage or injury to the inner layer of a coronary artery, sometimes as early as childhood. The damage may be caused by the various factors, including:

  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • High cholesterol
  • Diabetes or insulin resistance
  • Smoking
  • High blood pressure


Once the inner wall of an artery is damaged the fatty deposits of plaque made of cholesterol, fatty steaks, and other cellular waste products tend to get accumulate at the site of injury in the process called as the atherosclerosis. If, the surface of the plaque breaks or ruptures the blood cells known as the platelets will clump at the site of rupture to try to repair the artery so as to stop the blood. This clump can block the artery, leading to a heart attack.


Risk factors

Risk factors for coronary artery disease include:

  • Sex
  • Smoking
  • Age
  • Diabetes
  • Overweight or obesity
  • High blood pressure
  • High blood cholesterol levels
  • High stress
  • Physical inactivity
  • Family history


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